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Technology Description

Biomass Preparation 

This procedure involves removal of mechanical impurities (sand, stones, etc.), crushing, homogenisation and soaking of the biomass.

HTC Process

Soaked biomass is pumped into the HTC reactor, where it is pressurised to 25 bar by means of steam and heated up to 220 °C; once the catalyst (citric acid) is added the process of biomass decomposition, dehydration and carbonisation will be commenced.  Mass with pasty consistency – the coal paste – is the output from the HTC process.

Mechanical Dehydration

Mechanical compression is applied on order to remove 50 % of the water from the cooled-down coal paste. This part of the process produces coal cake. Larger part of the separated water is re-used in the production process. 

Drying

Using the waste heat from the HTC process the coal cake is dried to the moisture content required by the customer, usually 5 - 25%. Drying process produces pulverised biocoal.

Pelletisation

Based on the customer requirements the pulverised biocoal can be pressed into requested shape and dimensions – granules, pellets, briquettes …

Storing

Production equipment can include storage silo with automatic biocoal dispensing device leading directly to the boiler or used for loading into trucks. Biocoal can be stored in the same way as fossil coal.